PATENT-SUPERO® FUSION FLASH PLASTISOL

   We at Fusion 180° Ink are so proud to finally introduce Ink and coating,compatible to Eco-Friendly Bio-Degradation in short time,

   without leaving harm In natural environment, Compostable in soil and minimal –

   volatile compound (VOCs) for textile decoration,Screen printing and various

   coating industries 

   Supero® Fusion Flash plastisols are sustainable PVC ALTERNATIVE 

   (100% PVC Free) PLASTISOL INK & COATING, formulated by incorporating 

   cautiously selected through rigorous review and test, under our uncompromising 

   standards of utmost safety, sustainability, bio-degradable and compostable and 

   non or minimum volatile ingredients through craving, painful, stressful, and lengthy 14 

   year R & D and 5 year  perfecting process on actual mass production equipment 

   since 2000

   Supero® Fusion Flash Plastisol is specially originated in safety, renewability and

   sustainability which means living values in a changing world, 

   including the development of innovative and economically sustainable products that 

   compete in global economy:

        *Achieving the highest standards of Safety, Health and

                Environmental Stewardship*

   With a focus on renewable products, sustainability is considered as the pathway of 

   continuous improvement wherein the products and service developed with 

   progressively less environmentally impact as defined by American institute of 

   Chemical Engineers for sustainability.

Anastas and Warner’s 12 Principles of Green Chemistry(Theory and 

Practice-Oxford University Press : New York,1998- provide a road map for 

chemists to implement green chemistry) are adopted in its effort to develop, 

manufacture and promote the innovative products to meet or exceed our customer requirements for technical performance and eco-friendliness.

12 Principles of Green Chemistry

  • Prevent waste
  • Design safer chemicals and products
  • Design less hazardous chemical syntheses
  • Use renewable feedstocks
  • Use catalysts ,not stoichiometric reagents
  • Avoid chemical derivatives
  • Maximize atom economy
  • Use safer solvents and reaction conditions
  • Increase energy efficiency
  • Design chemicals and products to degrade after use
  • Analyze in real time to prevent pollution
  • Minimize the potentials for accidents

      BIODEGRADATION will occur naturally when Supero Fusion Flash is placed

      In a waste(anaerobic) environment by microbial activity.

      It will result in natural materials such as inert humus, methane and CO2

      by micro-organisms 

However, same performance properties as  traditional plastisol are

maintained without being affected by light,heat,UV rays, and oxygen

Carcinogenicity : 

Unlike conventional PVC Plastisol, Supero Fusion Flash® Plastisol does not contain toxins and produce hydro chloride gas (hydrochloric acid), 

unavoidable byproduct of all benchmark PVC plastisol caused by 

the decomposition of PVC polymer in all phases of high thermal fusion process.

Accordingly, Supero Fusion Flash® Plastisol is not subject to 

carcinogenicity issue at all.

Primary Advantage and Benefit of Supero Fusion Flash® Plastisol are 

described below including attaining and retaining performance properties that are similar or superior to PVC Plastisol without the perceived concerns associated with synthetic phthalate or phthalate free plasticizers and PVC-polyvinyl chloride 

polymers.

ADVANTAGES and BENEFITS OF SUPERO FUSION FLASH® PLASTISOL

  • 100% Bio-Degradable in a short time
  • Compostable-disintegrating in soil
  • Excellent toxicological and eco-toxicological profiles
  • Non-Volatile(Non-VOCs) or Near Zero Volatile
  • No containing halogen atoms in polymer

    No hydrohalogenation occurrence during fusion process

    No-expensive pre-dehydrohalogenation process required for disposal

  • No emission of Hydro-Chloride Gas(Hydrochloric Acid) and smoke
  • No carcinogenicity problem
  • No contribution to cumulative health risks as listed to human and environment
  • Ozone layer breaking
  • Acid rain
  • Reproductive hormone interruption-No sign of hormone-disrupting effect

Or mutagenic/chromosome aberration

  • Birth defect
  • Chloride-plasm angio-sarcoma(caner)
  • No Indication of thermal absorption/irritation or ocular irritants
  • Unquestionably Safe –backed unrivaled safety profile
  • Not governed by laws and regulations governing environmental attributes 

and health safety 

  • Excellent fast fusing behavior at low temperature(between 200 and 260D.F)
  • Superb disperse dye thermos-migration resistance
  • Abroad application including heat sensitive and crystalline substrates
  • Improving mechanical properties during short curing cycles or at reduced

temperature

  • Thermally very stable(no thermal decomposition even at high temperature)
  • Strong UV and weather resistance-outdoor application(no stabilizer needed)
  • Excellent extra ordinary Flexibility
  • Excellent flame retardant
  • Lower density than conventional PVC Plastisol
  • Aged stable shelf life
  • In 100% compliance of the followings.

21-1.CALIFORNIA PREP 65 

(The Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986)

21-2.CPSIA-2008 (Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act-2008)

            Section 101 and 108

  • SECTION 101–ABSENCE DECLARATION OF HEAVEY METALS

        Mercury(Hg)-Cadmium(Cd)-Chromium(Cr6)-Lead(Pb)

        SUPERO FUSION FLASH PLASTISOL do not contain any of the 

        Above mentioned heavy metals or any derivatives thereof.

   B.SECTION108ABSENCE DECLARATION OF PHTHALATE 

      Supero Fusion Flash is not anticipated to be present and

      not intentionally added and therefore, we do not analyze for it

 21-3.REACH REGULATIONS.

    We are fully aware of REACH regulations and are preparing our product

    according to its requirements.

    Our current active suppliers have declared that all their supplied

    substances are registered. Nevertheless, we are constantly reviewing

    its global and regional product offerings. We reserve the right to make 

    changes to our product portfolio, but we will take all commercially feasible 

    steps to inform our customers well in advance to identify suitable 

    alternative products.

           21-4.ECHA CANDIDATE LIST

                None of the substance, listed up in the ECHA candidate list on SVHC’s,

                Annex XIV and /or Annex XVII are present in our products we supply.

                Concentration ≥0.1% weight by weight

Supero Fusion Flash® Plastisol is manufactured 

       and protected under US Patent  

US Patent No. : 11,104,818

PCT International Application No. : US PCT/US17/035465  

PCT.Pub.No :WO2017/210436 

We are going to explain with the illustrations how innovative, revolutionary, efficient and multi-functional Supero Fusion Flash® Plastisols are.

SUPERO FUSION FLASH® PLASTISOL INK, THE INK & COATING OF FUTURE, are in the aspect of decorating and imparting special effect on garments.

     This product provides many Beneficiary Properties as described 

     Below..

1.BACKGROUND INFORMATION: 

As already stated above, Supero Fusion Flash is of paramount importance such as Biodegradable, Compostable, Non Volatile, and exhibits Excellent Toxicological, and Eco-Toxicological profiles.

This high-end ink is made to print on heat sensitive, crystalline (water proof coated) and normal substrates such as polyester, soft vinyl material substrate, acrylic, polypropylene non-woven, artificial leather, nylon (polyamide), rubber, sponge as well as non-heat sensitive 100% cotton and 50/50(sweatshirt).

 2. HOW SUPERO FUSION FLASH® PLASTISOL WORKS :

   Supero Fusion Flash® Plastisol distinguishes itself by offering equal or superior

   exactly to conventional benchmark PVC plastisol except advantages and benefits 

   described on above. 

   Therefore, SUPERO FUSION FLASH can be utilized generally with little 

   Alternation.

    1.no new applicational and fusing equipment are required.

    2.no prior education is needed to replace PVC Plastisol

    Supero Fusion Flash® Plastisol is completely cured at between 190 and 260°.F 

    (88 to 138°C.) with the duration of 20-40 seconds or 450°.F(232°.C) with the duration 

    of 4 seconds whereas benchmark PVC Plastisol has to be cured at between 320 and 

    380°.F (160-180°C) with the duration of 40-90 seconds.

  • FEEL-LOOK: 

Physical look of plastisol looks like creamy and soft

Prints are very bright, smooth, flexible, warm and matches the mock up.

The ink has excellent opacity on dark color substrates without white underlay

  • EASE TO USE: The ink gels at low flash temperature within very short duration time. It is easy to use with multi-color printing. It does not require a catalyst.

It does not build up on print side of screen and increase production speed.

  • EXTRA-ORDINARY STRONG ADHESION WITHOUT CATALYST AND

LONG SHELF LIFE

Supero Fusion Flash® Ink adheres on almost textile substrate without the addition of catalyst. Benchmark plastisol mixed with catalyst has only limited pot life at maximum up to 8 hours, and after 8 hours, mixture is gelled up and has to be wasted.

 6 ALL IN ONE APPLICATION: Abroad Application including most heat sensitive 

   and hard to adhere substrates, polyester, windbreaker, tri-blend,50/50,PVC film, 

   polypropylene non-woven, nylon (polyamide), acrylic, leather rubber, sponge,

   other synthetic substrate and cotton.

         HEAT SENSITIVE & HARD to ADHERE SUBSTRATES

   WET ON WET MULTI COLOR PRINT ON SOFT PVC RAINJACKET &

                  IMPOSSIBLE FABRIC TO PRINT   

 

        NO SHRINKING & MELTING DRY-FIT PERFORMANCE 

        POLYESTER SHIRT & VISCOSE RAYON SUBSTRATE  

   

  • VISCOSITY: The ink has very low viscosity. There is pseud plastic behavior at low temperature. The ink maintains Newtonian Viscosity at room temperature. 

It can be used through fine meshes. Supero Fusion Flash® Plastisol looks like cream Movement energy (squeegee friction) will make easily ink creamy and free flow.

  • MESH SELECTION RANGE: Coarse 86/Inch to fine 305/Inch (33/cm to 120/cm 

European) printable without viscosity modification. Through 280-305 mesh (110/cm), very fine and detailed printing can be accomplished as shown below.

              MESH SELECTION POSSIBLE UPTO 305 

  • DISPERSE DYE THERMO-MIGRATION RESISTANCE : 

SUPERB, ROBUST and VERSATILE- Lowering fusion temperature at the lowest level may minimize the possibility of sublimation of disperse low and medium energy dye thermos-migration. Additional Technical Information on polyester dye sublimation phenomenon is attached. 9

  • FIBER BLOCKADE, NO CRAWLING and UNIFORM & DENSE OVERAGE.

Impressively Suppressive. Effectively, cured ink film controls fiber fibrillation very well. There is a smooth and dense uniform layer on every substrate including surface untreated cotton garments.

  • HEALTH ISSUE : MOST IMPORTANT BENEFIT

Supero Fusion Flash® Plastisol is formulated by employing bio-based ingredients and non-toxic polymer. 

This plastisol is sustainable PVC alternative, Biodegradable, Compostable and Non-Volatile.

Unlike PVC Plastisol, it is not subject to healthy and environmental issues at all.

Further more, in order to explain why Supero Fusion Flash® Ink should be considered as the safest and eco-friendliest plastisol ink, we are going to describe by providing the published articles from cancer research report, how and why toxic benchmark PVC plastisol ink is.

It is strongly believed Supero Fusion Flash® Plastisol would be the best choice 

to eliminate or minimize healthy and environmental risks generated by ingredients containing toxic atoms from PVC polymer and the formation of Hydro-Chloride Gas. 

Hydro-Chloride Gas (called as HCI) and PCB’s are an unavoidable byproduct of PVC polymer during high thermos- fusion processes through between 320°F and 380°F (160°C and 194°C).

HCI is considered as a Dioxin categorized as a Group 1 Carcinogen by The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

HCI is created during all phases of PVC production due to very highly elated fusion temperature. High thermo-fusible benchmark PVC products have irreparably harmed the health of thousands of workers related to PVC production and process.

   Industry-Wide Conspiracy Lasting Decades

Henry Tousaint, a former worker at the PPG Industries plant in Lake Charles, La., receives a radiation treatment for mantle-cell lymphoma, a rare cancer he blamed on exposures to vinyl chloride and other chemicals. Tousaint, 54, died April 30, 1998

VCM is categorized as a Group 1 Carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), a branch of the World Health Organization (WHO).[9] More than 30 million pounds of VCM were emitted in 1974 from PVC product manufacturing solely in the US.[10]

The PVC industry has known about the carcinogenicity of VCM since about 1970, when Pier Luigi Viola[11] of the Regina Elena Institute for Cancer Research in Rome, found evidence of a VCM-cancer link in research for the Solvay plant in Rosignano, Italy and reported on it at the 10th International Cancer Congress in Houston, Texas. In 1972, Cesare Maltoni found angiosarcoma, 

a rare form of liver cancer, in test animals subjected to inhalation studies at the 250-ppm level.

In January 1973, the Manufacturing Chemists Association (CMA) visited Maltoni in Bologna, in an attempt to bury his results by bribing him. The CMA thought it would ruin the $65-billion/year VC industry and worked quickly to discredit Maltoni’s research, claiming that it was heavily flawed. Not only was his work correct, but he prophetically stated that “[v]inyl chloride is probably only one tree in a large forest. I am very suspicious of all compounds of the carbon-chloride group.”[12]

The wall of secrecy surrounding VC was not breached until Jan. 23, 1974, when B.F. Goodrich announced that it had found three fatal cases of angiosarcoma among workers at its PVC plant in Louisville. Goodrich, fearful of a broad indictment of PVC, had tried to stop publication of a European researcher’s paper in 1966, according to a Monsanto memo.[13] Currently, all but consumers know that PVC is a threat to both human and environmental health.

PVC has irreparably harmed the health of many thousands of PVC production workers. At the same time, the manufacturers knew of the dangers and deliberately conspired to withhold the information about VC toxicity from its workers and the public. The PBS Bill Moyers TV special Trade Secrets made this public knowledge on 26 March 2001.[14] Besides being the direct cause of cancer, emphysema, reproductive disorders, learning disabilities and death, it dissolved the bones in the fingers of many.

Residents near PVC plants are at extreme risk. In Mossville, LA, the home of two PVC manufacturers, the level of 13.5 parts per trillion (ppt) dioxin TEQs was found in human breast milk, 28 ppt in soil, 0.6 ppt. in the soil of a chicken coop, and 2.09 pg/g in egg.[15] According to a survey by Dr. Marvin Legator, director of the Toxics Assistance Program at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston, Mossville residents suffered from illnesses related to chemical exposure at levels 2-3 times higher than that of a control group in every one of the 12 body system categories.[16] Considering that dioxin mimics every hormone in the human body and is active to 1/10 ppt[17]

Dioxin and PCBs: Unavoidable Byproducts of PVC

Dioxin is created during all phases of PVC production, as well as in its disposal by incineration or accidental fire.

There is no “threshold” dose for dioxin. For dioxin, the lowest dose that causes hormonal action has not been found yet. It currently stands at about 1 part per trillion, but researchers have been unable to find the threshold using the most up-to-date advanced systems. It is thought to be the most toxic human-made chemical.

Another Report of CDC about Angiosarcoma of The Liver among PVC worker

is attached for review

   12.ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE : ECO-FRIENDLY & BIO-DEGRADABLE

As explained above, Fusion 180° Supero® Plastisol are Sustainable,

Bio-Degradable, Compostable, Non-VOCs or Near Zero VOCs

Renewable Carbon Content of Plasticizers is more 85% whereas Benchmark

PVC Plastisol has 0% and exhibit excellent toxicological and eco-toxicological profiles. Even more, waste disposal is very easy and the expense of waste disposal is very economical

As shown below, ASTM BMP Test Report -1 Indicated more than 10% was

Bio-degraded in 60 days.

** BMP stands for Biochemical Methane Potential **

ASTM BMP(BIO-METHANE) TEST REPORT 1 

ASTM BMP(BIO-METHANE) TEST REPORT 2

    

     Test Report is indicative of 100% Bio-Degradation 

13.FLAME RETARDENT & HEAVY METAL FREE & SMOKE FREE 

Application for all children’s clothing decoration is unlimited

  • COMFORTABLE AIR QUALITY IN WORKING AREA : 

very comfortable to breathe air, clean and cozy 

 15.FINE & DETAILED PRINTING RESULT THROUGH HIGH MESH COUNT

         THROUGH 280 TO 305(110-120/cm)  

 16.LESS ENERGY CONSUMPTION & REDUCED ENERGY BILL 

    Energy Consumption and Energy Bill can be drastically reduced or minimized.

    Fusion 180 Supero Plastisol makes possible to eliminate a gas or electrical belt dryer 

    Completely due to the properties fusible just with one or two flash cure units within

    4 seconds at temperature set-up 450ºF(232ºC)

   

    Video illustrating curing process only with Flash Cure Unit is available on

        www.fusion180ink.com or www.instagram.com/fusion180ink                       

 17.SPACE REDUCTION

   The elimination of belt dryer will help to save space on factory floor and convert

           the space for other operational usage

 ** GAS FIRED OR ELECTRICAL BELT DRYER MAY BE NO LONGER NECESSARY **

18.DECREASE of PRODUCTION TIME and INCREASE of PRODUCTION RATE

   The properties of Fusion at ultra low temperature and short time will sharply decrease

   production time and increase productive rate up to 1500 Impressions (Benchmark 

   Plastisol -average 500) per an hour 

19. FLUX of VOC: Fusion 180° Supero Fusion Flash® Plastisol Ink is non-volatile (

   non-VOCs) or Extra-ordinary low comparing with benchmark plastisol because 

   It is made with Bio-based and Biodegradable and Compostable plasticizers containing 

   9 times less alcohol than Benchmark.

 

20.QUICK & EASY COLOR MATCHING :

 13 Pigment Based Color Matching System will allow printer to make quick &

 easy color matching from small amount possible within 10 minutes.

 without special training & experience and tool beside kitchen gram scale

 and 500 gram scale with accuracy 1/100 or 1/1000 gram

  21. EXCELLENT TRANSFER PRINTING APPLICATION

    Due to the easy release properties from media such as paper and polyester,

    Fusion 180 Supero Ink can be excellent choice for Transfer Printing Application

22. DIGITAL PRINT TRANSFER APPLICATION ON GARMENT

   As new garment decorative trend( combined with color digital print and

   plastisol print transfer) grows, Fusion 180 Supero Fusion Flash Bond White is 

   outstanding as backing and transfer print and sustain the transferred colorful digital 

   print for many water washes 

         

 23.LOW TERMO-ACTIVATED and ROBUST COLOR FADE RESISTANT PUFF

    SFFFPP Puff Series of Fusion 180 Ink can be activated easily & fully at between 

    212 and 220º.F (100 to 104º.C) and are color fade resistant.

 24. EXTRA BRILLIANT FOIL GRADE METALLIC SILVER INK

    SFF-MT SERIES OF FUSION 180 SUPERO INK (MIRROR SILVER LOOK)

    PRINTABLE THROUGH FINER MESH     

    

OTHER APPLICABLE INDUSTRIES.

  • Decoration of Textile & Soft PVC Material Coating 

and Printing

2. Medical Products

3. Automotive Coating & Sealing for

3-1 Sound Insulating underbody coating

   3-2 Chipping Phenomenon Prevention

 3-3.Splash Noise Prevention

4. Building Materials 

4-1.PVC Siding & Roofing Membrane

4-2.Frame-Door Window and Conservatory

4-3.Furnishing-PVC Floor & Wall Covering, Cushion Sheet, Tiles

   and carpet

      5.Furniture : Imitation Leather

      6.Electrical Products: Electrical Cables, Telephone & Data Cable 

                           and etc.

      7.White Goods-: Door & Gaskets of Washing Machine,

                      Dish washer, Refrigerator, Freezer shelving

      8.Clothing-Lamination : Apron, Table Cloth and others

      9.Metal Plate Coating :

9-1.Construction Metal Coating –resistant to corrosiveness

9-2.Building Metal Plate Coating

9-3.Decorative Coating

      10.Other Industrial Coating : Fish Line ,Tarpaulin, and on and on

      CONTACT INFORMATION .

      FUSION 180 INK,INC.

      524ROUTE 303 

      ORANGEBURG, NY 10962 USA.

      Website   :  www.fusion180ink.com

      E-mail     :  hac@fusion180ink.com 

      Phone No. :  1-800-788-9122  

      Mobile    :  1-718-517-0131

      Prepared by Inventor & Pres .Hac S. Kang 11/01/2021

  INFORMATION OF DISPERSE DYE THERMO-MIGRATION FOR POLYESTER.

    DISPERSE DYE THERMO-MIGRATION and ULTRA-LOW THERMO FUSION

    Since I got into the business of distributing and manufacturing Screen Printing Ink and

    Supply 1990,I noticed PVC based Plastisol Ink have exhibited so many significant 

    environmental issues and limited application problems but All issues and problems 

    were remained without solution until 2014.

   Significant problems can be summarized as follows

  • Disperse Dye Thermo-Migration related to substrates made with synthetic fibers (called as dye bleeding )
  • High Fusion Temperature at between 320°F and 380°F—

Melting problems with synthetic substrates such as heat sensitive polyester,50/50, Tri-Blend, Nylon, Polypropylene and Vinyl 

  • Very High Energy Consumption
  • Limited Adhesion-The addition of Catalyst issue and short pot life.
  • Limited Application
  • Rough Coverage-
  • Weak Opacity 
  • Fiber Blockage
  • Crawling specially on 50/50 Sweat Shirt
  • Too High Surface Tension
  • Very Thick Film Deposit
  • Too Heavy Viscosity like Concrete
  • Steady Viscosity Increase in storage(agglomeration and settling )
  • Toxicity of PVC Plastisol Ink, Coating and various products-

   1. Disperse Dye Thermo-Migration 

     In order to help for screen printer to correctly understand  

     Dye Thermo-Migration(Polyester Dye Bleeding) related to 

     the substrates of 100% Polyester, Polyester Blend, Polyester/Cotton, 

     I am going to state why we can’t avoid facing constantly serious Bleeding Problem

   1-1. WHAT DOES DISPERSE DYE THERMO-MIGRATION (BLEEDING) MEAN ?

     Exact description of DYE BLEEDING used in Textile Printing Industry is Disperse 

     Dye Thermo-Migration. Thermo-Migration is a general term, used to 

     describe the diffusion of disperse dyes out of dyed or printed fiber during

     heat treatment and their accumulation on the fiber surface.

     Thermo-migration is a complex phenomenon which can be governed by several

     factors, namely, type of fiber, chemical constitution of disperse dye, disperse

     content in substrate and applied Finishing Agents.

  1-2. WHAT ARE DISPERSE DYES ?

    Disperse dyes are dyes used to dye polyester fiber.

    Disperse dyes are insoluble in water or slightly soluble in water

    It has good sublime ability due to stable electronic arrangement which causes

    considerable thermo-migration problem to textile embellishment with printing Ink.

   1-3.IS DISPERSE DYE SUBJECT TO GAS FADING ?

    Certain Blue and Violet dyes containing anthraquinone structure, which are

    medium energy dye are subject to fading in presence of nitrous oxide made in 

    nature from various sources such as open gas fire and electric heat 

    treatment.

   1-4.WHAT CAUSE THERMO-MIGRATION OF DISPERSE DYES ?
    There are four major factors to be considered

  • Dye Energy Level.

    A-1.Low Energy Dyes

Low molecule weight, small molecules, low polarity, good Affinity to

       crystalline and hydrophobic polyester fiber, 

       rapid Dyeing Rate due to higher diffusion coefficients 

       But Poor Heat Resistance

       Low energy dyes are most commonly used to dye polyester fiber

       due to many considerable factors

       It is possible to dye at water boiling temperature (212°F-100°C)

       Maximum temperature to resist thermo-migration is 212°F-100°C

   A-2.Medium Energy Dyes.

       Medium molecule weight, medium polarity, moderate affinity

       Moderate Heat Resistance

       Maximum temperature to resist thermo-migration (290°F-140°C)

   A-3.High Energy Dyes

       High or large molecule weight, high-polarity, poor-affinity

       (poor migration during dyeing) 

       Low Dyeing Rate Good Heat and Sublimation Fastness

       Maximum temperature to resist thermo-migration is 320-360°F

       (160-180°C)

       

  • Dye Concentration on Dyed Fiber

Excessively concentrated Dye on fabric would cause dye bleeding

   C. Temperature and Time of Thermal Heat Treatment.

      C-1) Proper temperature of dye energy level

           Low Energy Dye Dyed Fabric       : 212°F(100°C) or lower

           Medium Energy Dye Dyed Fabric     290°F(140°C) or lower

           High Energy Dye Dyed Fabric        320-340°(160-180°C)

      C-2) Pronged duration in fusion process encourages thermo-migration 

          effect. With increase in treatment time, dyes get more time for thermo-

          migration from Interior to the fiber surface.

          In fact, during post dyeing heat treatment to Polyester, 

          Several phenomena may take place simultaneously because dissolution

          of the dye inside fiber, sublimation of dyes, migration of dyes from interior 

          to the surface. It seems from test result that migration of the dyes from 

          interior to surface dominated over two others.

                    

    D.Type of Finishing Agent and Their Concentrates.

      The Presence of finishing agent accelerate migration of the Dyes 

      onto surface.

      The amount of dye migration on to the surface of fiber due to post dyeing

      heat treatment not only depends on to the temperature but also depends

      on the type of finishing agents applied.

      Mostly used finishing agents are silicone emulsion, amino silicone and

      amino acrylate.

      The finish itself also diffuse into the fiber at the higher temperature of

      heat treatment.

      Diffusion of the finish causes a change in the micro structure of the fiber

      which probably leads to higher free creation.

      In such circumstance, Molecules in fiber will have great mobility to diffuse out 

      of the fiber and into the finish to the surface.

      Therefore, The thermo-migration is highly dependent on the type of finish 

      applied to fabric.

     The extent of migration is less in amino silicone compared to silicone emulsion 

     finished fabrics because silicone finish contains up to 10% surface active agent 

     whereas amino silicone contains very little.

Through the study of disperse dyes, disperse dye dyeing process and heat treatment, 

Conclusion reaches no efficient methods to prevent thermo-migration from 

manufacturers of disperse dye and disperse dye dyeing industry can be found in near 

future. Hence, even though preventive measure is very limited, only printing ink 

remains as last resources to encounter textile dye thermo-migration(dye bleeding ).

IS IT POSSIBLE FOR PLASTISOL INK TO PREVENT or BLOCK THE THERMO-

MIGRATION OUT OF THE SUBSTRATES made with POLYESTER, POLYESTER

BLEND & OTHER MAN-MADE FIBERS?

As explained of several factors which cause bleeding of disperse dyes and finish

As long as fiber is dyed with low energy dyes and finished with silicone emulsion finish agent, Printer always has to face and worry considerable bleeding problem when 

printing substrates, 100% Polyester, Polyester Blend, Polyester/Cotton and other man-made fiber fabrics because the fusion temperature of current Inks is

320-340°F(160-170°C)  Whereas, the temperature of thermo-migration of disperse dye and finish is far lower than ink fusion temperature 

it was found from series of tests that thermo-migration of substrate dye began

lower than 180°F(82°C)

There may be possibility to block dye thermo-migration(dye-bleeding) problem

If man-made fiber is dyed with high energy dyes and finished with amino silicon and

amino acrylate finish as well as printing ink can be developed to be completely 

fused/Cured lower than 212°F(100°C) 

But Printing Ink fusible at lower than the temperature of thermo-migration of low 

energy dyes and silicone finish can’t be developed due to the high molecular 

weight of PVC Resins and Plasticizers in other words, which need very 

high temperature heat treatment for complete fusion.

Gel temperature of Phthalate Free Plasticizers, Specially Eastman 168 DOTP mostly 

used by Ink manufacturers is normally 10°F higher than Phthalate DINP Plasticizer

In order to solve the existing problems,

I have developed and perfected two differentiated PVC Plastisol Ink lines called as 

Fusion 180 BIO-CON-185, Fusible at between 190-240°F(87-115°C) by incorporating the 

lowest temperature gel/fusion PVC polymers,100% active materials and special 

technology which never have been used .

These PVC Plastisol Whites showed outstanding and effective result to sustain 

thermo-migration of substrates, 100% Polyester, Polyester Blends, 

and Polyester/Cotton.

Also,PVC alternative Plastisol Ink (called as SUPERO FUSION FLASH Plastisol)

designed to be completely fusible between 190 and 240°F(87°-115°C) has been created 

and perfected since 2000.

However, Test results exhibited even this lowest temperature fusible ink is not still 

fully exempt from thermo-migration problem with the presence of very low energy dyes 

such as certain Black, Blue, Green, Reds(Red 2B) and Violet as well as most real low 

energy sublimation dyes used for water base digital ink..

More than 200 disperse dyes are available on market, but no one component 

black and green disperse dye are available yet. 

Black and Green colors are made with the mixture of various color dyes.

Accordingly, It seems Completely Blocking Bleeding on disperse dye dyed man-

made textile garments printed with current Ink which are highly priced Is still on certain

limitation

IS THERE ANY BETTER INK AVAILABLE TO HOLD EFFECTIVELY DYE 

THERMO-MIGRATION FOR LONG PERIODS ?

There are excellent answers to eliminate or sustain thermo-migration problem

for longer periods

Superb Thermo-Migration Resistance of CON-OOWFES White and Fusion 180-

180 White as well as OOIFES 618 Flag Red and Fusion 180-618 as underlay or 

blocker of bleeding to most polyester substrate have been confirmed through over 

8 month comparison test with many expensive poly whites offered by competing 

companies which have been being used by printer.

Fusion 180- SFF-BIO-185 White have shown a little weak bleed resistance on really low 

energy disperse Green and Red 2B dye dyed polyester fabrics. 

In order to solve stinky and stridulous problems, different R & D is ongoing. 

So many plastisol Ink colors instead of grey ink recommended by many ink

manufacturers were tested to find color which may be able to suppress dye bleeding.

through formulation and reformulation and test and retest over two months, 

Fusion 180 SFF-BIO-618 FLAG RED were found as most  formidable dye bleed in

blocking Underlay .

WHY DOES PLASTISOL WHITE INK CHANGE TO YELLOWISH SHADE WITH

THERMAL TREATMENT ?

When PVC Plasitol Ink is heated to 320-340°F(160-170°C), Chlorine and Hydrogen

In molecules(PVC RESIN) are eliminated and is formed in Hydro-Chloride Gas(HCI) .

When Titanium Dioxide (White Pigment),Titanium Substitute and filler are exposed to

 Hydro-Chloride Gas(HCI), White Color changes to yellowish shade.

In order to stabilize Hydro-Chloride elimination, various heat stabilizers such Zinc Oxide, ESO and others are used in plastisol ink formulation, but HCI is not completely preventive because once such decomposition starts, unstable structures are formed, which further accelerate HCI elimination.

WHY IS LOW-TEMPERATURE FUSIBLE PLASTISOL SO IMPORTANT 

(HEALTH AND TOXICITY ISSUE) ?

Beside the issues of color shade change and dye thermo-migration with current high temperature fusible plastisol ink, most important thing we have overlooked since about 1970 may be the serious threat to both human and environmental health.

As discussed above, when PVC Plastisol is heated up to high temperature for heat treatment , Hydrogen and Chlorine in the molecules of PVC resin are eliminated 

Once such decomposition starts, unstable structures are formed in molecule, which further accelerate HCI elimination and decomposition and is formed in 

hydro chloride gas(HCI)-Unavoidable Byproducts of PVC ,which is considered as Dioxin, categorized as a group 1 Carcinogen by The International Agency for Research on Cancer(IARC), a branch of World Health Organization(WHO). .

Carcinogenicity of HCI to human being, has been known since about 1970

when Pier Luigi Viola of The Regina Elena Institute for cancer Research in Rome found the evidence of HCI-cancer link in research for SOLVAY plant in Italy.

Dioxin is created during all phases of PVC production as well as its disposal by incineration or accidental fire.

In order to prevent or minimize hydrogen and chlorine elimination from PVC Plastisol Ink during heat treatment, the fusible temperature should be much lower than 320°F(160°C).

Since we found the fact, which PVC has irreparably harmed the health of many thousands of workers related to PVC production and process, 

I have been concentrating effort on R & D since 2000 to develop ultra low thermo- fusible PVC plastisol ink as well as PVC alternative plastisol coating and ink.

All our PVC Plastisol Inks are formulated to be completely cured at between

180-260°F(83-126°C) and all PVC alternative Plastisol Inks are formulated to be

completely fused at 212-240°F(100-116°C)

Hopefully, The information would be helpful for many printers to understand the reason why ultra low thermo-fusible ink is so important.

Should you have further information, please feel free to contact us.

Contact Name : Hac S.kang

E-mail : hac@fusion180ink.com 

Phone : 1-718-517-0131(cell)  1-800-788-9122(toll free)

                   TEST REPORT    

Applicant: Fusion 180 Ink Inc./

            Supero Fusion Flash

524 Route 303

Orangeburg,NY 10962

Attention: Hac S. Kang

EMail: hac@fusion180ink.com

 Sample Description as Declared :

Description : Cured Plastisol Ink On Textile

Color : White, Yellow, Green, Blue, Purple, Red Date Received / Date Test Started : June 23, 2020/ June 26, 2020

 

 For and on behalf of

Intertek Products Group North America:

Daniel Sabou 

Operation Manager

Chemical Testing Laboratories

                               

TEST RESULTS:

Total Lead Content in Paints and Surface Coatings per Section 101 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act

Test Method: CPSC‐CH‐E1003‐09.1 by compositing

Requirement: Paint and other similar surface coatings may not contain more than 0.009% lead by weight or 90 ppm.

For composite testing, a “safety factor” of 80% is applied, as suggested by the CPSC Test Method: CPSC‐ CH‐E1003‐09.1. Applying the “safety factor” reduces the lead limit from 90 ppm to 72 ppm.

Test Results:

Component

Number

Composite Result (ppm) Potential results per

individual component (ppm)

Limit with safety

factor

1a <20 <59.9 72
1b <60.1 72
1c <60 72
2a <20 <60 72
2b <59.9 72
2c <60.1 72

**Inconclusive

Component Number Component Description
1a White Paint
1b Yellow Paint
1c Blue Paint
2a Red Paint
2b Green Paint
2c Black Paint

Conclusion: When tested as specified, the submitted sample(s) does comply with the CPSIA Section 101 requirements for lead in paints and surface coatings.

Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act,Sec.108 

Phthalate Content – 3 Phthalates

Test Method: CPSC‐CH‐C1001‐09.3, composite

Requirements:  Toys and child care articles may not contain more than 0.1% by weight or 1000 ppm each of Bis‐2‐ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP), Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP).

For composite testing, a “safety factor” of 80% is applied, as suggested by the CPSC. Applying the “safety factor” reduces the phthalate limit from 0.1% (or 1000 ppm) to 

0.08% (or 800 ppm).

Test Results: Unit: %

Restricted Substances Results
1(a) 1(b) 1(c) 2(a) 2(b) 2(c)
DEHP <0.005 <0.005
BBP <0.005 <0.005
DBP <0.005 <0.005
component Number Component Description
1(a) White Paint
1(b) Yellow Paint
1(c) Blue Paint
2(a) Red Paint
2(b) Green Paint
2(c) Black Paint

Conclusion: The submitted toy and / or childcare article(s) does comply with the limit for the Phthalates as specified in Section 108 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008.

The test results stated in this report relate only to the item(s) tested. This test report may not be reproduced except in full, without written approval of Intertek.

Tests identified with (*) have been subcontracted.

  If you need assistance in interpreting these results or if you have any questions, please feel free 

  to call Customer Service Department

This report is made solely on the basis of your instructions and/or information and materials supplied by you. It is not intended to be a recommendation for any particular course of action. Intertek does not accept a duty of care or any other responsibility to any person other than the Client in respect of this report and only accepts liability to the Client insofar as is expressly contained in the terms and conditions governing Intertek’s provision of services to you. Intertek makes no warranties or representations either express or implied with respect to this report save as provided for in those terms and conditions. We have aimed to conduct the Review on a diligent and careful basis and we do not accept any liability to you for any loss arising out of or in connection with this report, in contract, tort, by statute or otherwise, except in the event of our gross negligence or willful misconduct.